Assessing the Risk Factors Associated with Patients Diagnosed to have Adhesive Capsulitis


  • Muhammad Zubair Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad.
  • Salman A Saleem Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad.
  • Tahir Iqbal Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad.
  • Muhammad Hasan Wasim Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad.
  • Muhammad Javaid Iqbal Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad.
  • Maha Kaiser National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Islamabad.


Adhesive capsulitis, risk factors, diabetes, HbA1c


Background: Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) of the shoulder or Frozen Shoulder (FS) is the most common disabling shoulder condition which has serious functional implications in daily life. FS affects 2 to 3 percent of the population. In Pakistan, fewer studies have been performed in the past describing the common risk factors linked to AC.

Objective: The objectives of the study are to assess the risk factors e.g diabetes, thyroid disease, stroke, trauma, hyperlipidemia, rheumatoid and tuberculosis present in patients with AC, and whether the levels of HbA1c have a role in AC.

Study type, settings & duration: This descriptive study was carried out at Shifa Foundation Falahi Clinic and Pain and Medical Clinic at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad between June 2018 and January 2021.  

Methodology: Non probability convenience sampling technique was used. Consecutive patients more than 18 years old with shoulder pain or stiffness were identified and informed consent was obtained. A detailed survey using a questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics were performed. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for age. The SPSS version 23 was used for data analysis. Frequency analysis of risk factors was performed. Further statistical analysis was done by applying chi-square test to assess the relationship between HbA1c levels(control of Diabetes Mellitus) and adhesive capsulitis.

Results: Data of 304 patients with mean age of 54±9 years. Frequency analysis showed 86 (28.3%) were males and 218 (71.7%) were females. The most common risk factor was diabetes 41.6% followed by hyperlipidemia 28.6%, shoulder trauma 14.8%, hypothyroidism 12.5%.......




How to Cite

Muhammad Zubair, Salman A Saleem, Tahir Iqbal, Muhammad Hasan Wasim, Muhammad Javaid Iqbal, & Maha Kaiser. (2023). Assessing the Risk Factors Associated with Patients Diagnosed to have Adhesive Capsulitis. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, 62(2), 82–85. Retrieved from